When educating the minds of young, we must not forget to educate the hearts. More »

Group photo with honourable Syikong Dr Lobsang Sangay More »

Group photo of school staff 2015. More »

Tibetan spelling test organized for the students of class VI to X. More »

English “Sing Song Evening” organized for the students. More »

Inter class salad presentation contest More »

Inter class chess contest held on 28th April 2015. More »

Students participating in the Tibetan dialectic debate practice. More »

 

བོད་ཡིག།

འཆད་རྩོད་རྩོམ་གསུམ་རྒྱན་གྱི་རྒྱན།

ཀ་ཅི་དཀར་པོ་མིག་གི་རྒྱན།

ཁ་བ་དཀར་པོ་གངས་རིའི་རྒྱན།

ག་ས་གང་ལ་ནང་ཆོས་རྒྱན།

ང་ཚོའི་གངས་ལྗོངས་འཛམ་གླིང་རྒྱན།

ཅ་ཅོ་བྲལ་བ་གཏམ་གྱི་རྒྱན།

ཆ་ལུགས་བཟང་བ་གོམས་གཤིས་རྒྱན།

ཇ་ཆང་འཛོམས་པ་འཚོ་བའི་རྒྱན།

ཉ་མོ་རྩལ་ལྡན་ཆུ་ཡི་རྒྱན།

ཏ་ལ་ལ་ནི་སྒྲོན་མེའི་རྒྱན།

ཐ་སྙད་ཕྱུག་པ་རྩོམ་གྱི་རྒྱན།

ད་ལོ་གྱ་སྟོན་སྟོན་མོའི་རྒྱན།

ན་གཞོན་སྲིད་སྐྱོང་དཔོན་གྱི་རྒྱན།

པ་ཕྲུག་མཛེས་པ་དབུ་སྐྲའི་རྒྱན།

ཕ་མ་བཟང་བ་ཁྱིམ་གྱི་རྒྱན།

བ་མོའི་ནུ་ཞོ་བཏུང་བྱའི་རྒྱན།

མ་ཡི་བྱམས་བརྩེ་བརྩེ་བའི་རྒྱན

ཙ་རི་རོང་བསྐོར་སྐོར་བའི་རྒྱན།

ཚྭ་ནི་རོ་བརྒྱ་ཟས་ཀྱི་རྒྱན།

ཛ་ཡུལ་ཤིང་ཏོག་ཀུན་གྱི་རྒྱན།

ཝ་ཞྭ་ཕོ་གསར་དབུ་ལ་རྒྱན།

ཞྭ་མོ་སོག་ཞྭ་བུད་མེད་རྒྱན།

ཟ་འཐུང་འཛོམས་ན་ལྷན་འཛོམས་རྒྱན།

འ་ཅག་བོད་མིར་གཤིས་བཟང་རྒྱན།

ཡ་རབས་བཟང་པོ་སྤྱོད་པའི་རྒྱན།

ར་བ་གངས་ཅན་ཡུལ་གྱི་རྒྱན།

ལ་མོ་གམ་པ་ལ་ཡི་རྒྱན།

ཤ་མར་རྩམ་གསུམ་ཁ་ཟས་རྒྱན།

ས་མཐོ་པོ་གོ་ལ་ཡི་རྒྱན།

ཧ་ཧ་རྒྱན་གྱི་རྒྱལ་པོ་འཆད།

ཧུ་ཧུ་རྒྱན་གྱི་རྒྱལ་པོ་རྩོད།

ཧི་ཧི་རྒྱན་གྱི་རྒྱལ་པོ་རྩོམ།

ཨ་ཙི་དེ་གསུམ་རྒྱན་གྱི་རྒྱན།

༢༠༡༥/༨/༡༧ དགོང་མོར་སློབ་དགེ་པ་སངས་ཀྱིས་གང་དྲན་དུ་བྲིས།


Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qºÛ-ÇÀôz-GÅôºÛ-¾ïGÅ-BïÅ-hP-ÇÀôz-¢ôP-¢ôP-fzÅü

ཅོན་སློབ་བོད་དགེ་བྱམས་པ་བཀྲིས་ཀྱིས་བསྒྱུར།

(Educational Psychology, Its Contribution to Education and Methods of Study)

 

Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-q-mÛü ±m-¼ÛG-hP-±m-¯¾-HÛ-mÝÅ-q-º±ô¾-fzÅ-¿km-qºÛ-uÛ-ÇKï¼-±P-¤ºÛ-GmÅ-¾ÞGÅ-ºIï¾-zXôh-fÞz-qºÛ-ÁïÅ-dôGÅ-ˆÛ-Oô¤-GŸÛ-hP-‚-uôh-¾-PôÅ-º²Ûm-fÞz-Mã-hP.ü P-±ôÅ-fzÅ-ÁïÅ-¸ÞP-hÝ-ºƒï¾-bï-Gż-Gbôh-ˆÛ-n¤-q-ŸÛG-Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qºÛ-mP-hô-h¤-‚-hGôÅü

P-±ôºÛ-¤fôP-VôÅ-ÅÞ-»ôh-qºÛ-n¤-ºHã¼-(uôh-q-)hP-¤Pôm-Gž-¿km-qºÛ-xÛ-¼ô¾-»Þ¾-HÛ-hPôÅ-qô-Pô-fôG-Gbm-ºzïzÅ-‚-Mã-hP-DÞPÅ-Bï¾-‚-Mã-hï-»Ûmü Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qºÛ-ŸÛz-ºWâG-¾Å-P-±ôÅ-fzÅ-z¯ôm-‚ïh-qºÛ-fôG-mÅ-ÁïÅ-dôGÅ-Wï-¤P-hÝ-ºIô-z-ºhÛ¼-¤fº-Ç+ô¼-HÛ-ºHã¼-¿kôG-¿km-qºÛ-GÁÛÅ-;-Ç+zÅ-fôG-Mã-¤±m-ºIô-¾ÞGÅ-¾-zdïm-mÅ-±ôh-º²Ûm-®¤-»Ûmü

GŸm-»P-P-±ôÅ-uÛ¼-V-Aïm-»P-hG-vôh-qºÛ-fôG-mÅ-ÁïÅ-dôGÅ-hP-¼-vôh-fÞz-q¼-¤-¸hü ¤ÛºÛ-uôh-±ß¾-±ß¾-Gmh-¾-Dï¾-zºÛ-fzÅ-z¯ôm-hP-ÇSôm-hqG-‚-fÞzü

uÛ¼-zbP-‚Å-mü GŸÛ-¯ºÛ-±m-¼ÛG-GÛ-Eh-VôÅ-w¾-Vï-hP.ü ºWÛG-dïm-hÝ-º±ô-zºÛ-¼ÛP-¾-P-±ôºÛ-ÁïÅ-¼ÛG-GÛ-ºwï¾-MÅ-¾-Gô-OÛG-fÞz-q-hP.ü ¿ËG-q¼-hÝ-Eh-VôÅ-ºhÛ-hG-Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-q-¾-ºôÅ-qºÛ-V-»Ûmü

Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qºÛ-mP-P-±ôÅ-¤±m-ZÛh-¼ÛG-qºÛ-fzÅ-WâÅ-ºôG-mÅ-¤Û-»Û-uôh-±ß¾-hP.ü hï-zŸÛm-Æô¾-Mãm-HÛ-¼ÛG-GmÅ-¾-dôG-ŸÛz-‚-Mã-hï-¤Ûmü ±m-¼ÛG-GÛ-º±ô¾-Oæz-hïÅ-¤ÛºÛ-zŤ-„Àô-»¼-MÅ-hP.ü »¼-MÅ-hïºÛ-fôG-mÅ-ºWÛG-dïm-xÛºÛ-z;ôh-q-¾-z¿e-ŸÛz-‚Å-XïÅ-Mãm-¿km-HÛ-º±ô-zºÛ-fh-¾-ÁïÅ-ºhôh-‚-Mã-hï-»Ûmü

Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-q-ºhÛ-±m-¼ÛG-zŸÛm-uôh-±ß¾-¾-±ôh-º²Ûm-hP.ÇSôm-hqG-fÞz-q¼-¤-¸hü n¤-zŸG-ºhÛÅ-zdG-hrh-ˆÛ-fzÅ-¾¤-fôG-mÅ-ºHã¼-Tm-hG-¾-hzP-Nå¼-‚-fÞz-TÛP.ü zdG-hrh-¼Û¤-q-‚Å-qºÛ-XïÅ-ºƒÅ-hPôÅ-qôºÛ-GmÅ-¾ÞGÅ-hï-»P-V-Aïm-¤Û-ZÝP-z-ŸÛG-ºôG-mÅ-ÁïÅ-dôGÅ-‚ãP-zºÛ-Iâz-ºƒÅ-»Ûmü

Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qºÛ-º±ô¾-Oæz-hïÅ-¤-ºôPÅ-q¼-ŸÛz-ºWâG-hP-hôm-hPôÅ-ˆÛ-¤Û-±ïºÛ-mP-GÛ-‚-zŸG-hP.ü ÁïÅ-¼ÛG-GÛ-fh-¾-¾G-¾ïm-zÇe¼-¼ÞP-z-ŸÛG-»Ûm-q-¼ïhü

Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qºÛ-Gż-º²âGÅ-ˆÛ-n¤-q-ºhÛ-G¸ÞGÅ-D¤Å-VGÅ-±ß¾-HÛ-¼ÛG-q-¾Å-zL¾-zºÛ-±m-¼ÛG-TÛG-»Ûm-q¼-fï-±ô¤-»ôhü ºôm-ˆP-Ç+zÅ-fôG-hÐôGÅ-GŸÛº¤-iÛ-z-ŸÛG-Åï¤Å-DôP-hÝ-ºV¼-z-mÛü ºhÛ-BïÅhPôÅ-¼ÛG-qºÛ-±m-¼ÛG-(Biological Science)»Ûm-m¤-»P-m-GÁÛÅ-uôh-Tm-HÛ-±m-¼ÛG-(Behavioral Science)»Ûm-m¤ü

Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-q-mÛ-BïÅ-hPôÅ-¼ÛG-qºÛ-±m-¼ÛG-TÛG-»Ûmü hï-»P-G¸ÞGÅ-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qºÛ-ÇÀôz-¢ôP-hP-ºIôGÅ-bï-¤±ôm-hGôÅ-q-ŸÛG-»Ûm-q¼-hÝÅ-¼zÅ- 19 qºÛ-hÝÅ-hˆÛ¾-®¤-hÝ- Germany¾Å-fômü

uôh-¾¤-fô¾-‚ãP-hÝ-ºhôh-qºÛ-¿e-zÅ-n¤-ºHã¼-Ço-±ôGÅ-¾-ÇÀôz-¢ôP-‚ïh-Mã-hP-¤Û-n¤Å-ˆÛ-¼P-zŸÛm-mÛ-uÛ-±ôGÅ-ˆÛ-¼P-zŸÛm-¾-G¾-Gmh-fÞG-»ôhü GP-»Ûm-Ÿï-mü ¤Û-n¤Å-z®Å-qºÛ-hÝÅ-mÅ-¤-ÁÛ-z¼-hÝ-¤ÛºÛ-uÛ-±ôGÅ-Fôh-hÝ-º±ô-zŸÝGÅ-‚ïh-hGôÅ-q-VôÅ-ZÛh-»Ûm-¾ü ¤Û-Åô-ÅôºÛ-¼P-zŸÛm-hP-Eh-VôÅ-mÛ-xÛºÛ-uÛ-±ôGÅ-ÁÛG-GÛ-Dô¼-»ÞG-mÅ-wm-±ßm-¿eôÅ-¼ïÅ-‚Å-mÅ-GmÅ-q-ºhÛ-»Ûmü GP-¿e¼-uÛ-±ôGÅ-¾-¤-zdïm-q¼-¤Û-Åô-ÅôºÛ-zŤ-GŸÛGÅ-¾Å-zL¾-zºÛ-º±ô¾-Oæz-ˆÛ-zhï-z-»P-hG-TÛG-GôP-ºwï¾-ºIô-Mã-»ôP-¤Û-ÆÛh-¾ü hïP-¼zÅ-ˆÛ-Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-q-mÛ-Bï-zô-Åô-ÅôºÛ-uôh-¾¤-uÛ-±ôGÅ-ˆÛ-Fôh-hÝ-Ám-WÛ-¿e¼-¢¼-±ß¾-fh-¾-P-±ôÅ-ÇÀôz-GZï¼-‚-Mã-hï-»Ûm-q¼-¤-¸hü ÇKï¼-PôÅ-mÅ-¤P-±ôGÅ-¾Å-GP-ºi-‚Å-mÅ-ÇÀôz-GÅô-¾ïm-fÞzü ¤Û-ÇKï¼-GTÛG-GÛ-uôh-±ß¾-hï-hPôÅ-ÅÞ-uÛ-±ôGÅ-¾-zÇeàm-mÅ-¼-vôh-‚-Mã-hï-»Ûmü Mã-¤±m-mÛü P-±ôÅ-uÛ-±ôGÅ-ˆÛ-GmÅ-zz-hP-ºIô-¾ÞGÅ-ÇÀôz-¢ôP-‚Å-qºÛ-¢PÅ-ºƒÅ-¾Å-Gž-ÁïÅ-fÞzü

Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-q-ºhÛ-±m-¼ÛG-hP-¤fÞm-xôGÅ-ÅÞ-zBôh-qºÛ-ÇÀôz-¢ôP-vôh-xôGÅ-ÁÛG-»Ûmü zMãh-¼Û¤-hïºÛ-ºôG-mÅ-¼ÛG-GmÅ-hP-uÛ-±ôGÅ-ˆÛ-h;º-P¾-¾-hô-ÇoP-VïÅ-Vï¼-fÞz-qºÛ-ÇÀôz-¢ôP-»Ûmü

È-TP-G¾-Gmh-G®ô-º²Ûm-hÝ-ºHã¼-zºÛ-uÛ-±ôGÅ-ˆÛ-GmÅ-±ß¾-ºhÝ-ºGôh-fÞz-qºÛ-Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-q-hïÅ-¤Û-ÇkïºÛ-Fôh-ˆÛ-h;º-ÇkÝG-Vï-Å-VßP-Å-¼ÛGÅ-ÅÞ-¤-Vh-q¼-mÝÅ-ºHã¼-fÞz-q-ÅôGÅ-hGï-¤±m-¿km-»ôhü hï¼-zdïmü Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-q-mÛü uôh-¾¤-fô¾-‚ãP-ºhôh-qºÛ-±m-¼ÛG-TÛG-»Ûmü (Psychology is a behavioral science)¤hô¼-mü ºhÛ-mÛ-±m-¼ÛG-hP-BïÅ-hPôÅ-¼ÛG-q-(Biology)GZÛÅ-;-hPôÅ-ÁÝGÅ-GZÛÅ-;ºÛ-‚-¯ô¾-HÛ-DôPÅ-ÅÞ-ºhÝ-zºÛ-uôh-¾¤-fô¾-‚ãP-¼ÛG-q-(Behavioral Science)¸ï¼-m-¾ïGÅ-q¼-¤fôP.ü

Ç+zÅ-ºhÛºÛ-uôh-qºÛ-hôm-zÁh-qü

(Meaning of Behaviour)

 GôP-hÝ-uôh-¾¤-ŸïÅ-qºÛ-f-ljh-ˆÛ-hôm-¤hô¼-®¤-zÁh-¸Ûm-q-»Ûmü xÛ-¾ô-zM-yG 19 qºÛ-hÝÅ-¤WâG-®¤-hÝ-Í-¤Û-¼Û-;ºÛ-Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-q-¬-z-J.B.Watson¤VôG-GÛÅ-uôh-¾¤-ÇÀôz-hÝÅ-fh-¾-hôm-ljÛP-¿km-qºÛ-¤±m-ZÛh-Ez-Çtï¾-zbP-zºÛ-hôm-Gmh-fôG-DôP-GÛÅ-ºIï¾-zXôh-GmP-hôm-¾ü ‘‘uôh-¾¤-mÛü ‚-uôh-TÛG-»Ûmü hï-»P-‚-»Þ¾-HÛ-ÇKô-mÅ-¤fôP-VôÅ-¥ôP-GÅÞ¤-¤Pôm-ÅÞ¤-hÝ-ÇoP-zºÛ-dôGÅ-¼ÛG-TÛG-»Ûmü hï-»P-xÛ-mP-GZÛÅ-;ºÛ-ÁïÅ-±h-ˆÛÅ-±ô¼-Mãm-¾Å-zÇÀPÅ-qºÛ-Ç+ݾ-Aïm-ŸÛG-¼ïhü’’ TïÅ-GÅÞPÅü

ÇÀôz-GÅôºÛ-hôm-zÁh-qü

(Meaning of Education)

z®Å-¤-fG-mÅ-‚ÛÅ-qºÛ-¼P-zŸÛm-hï-Åô-ÅôºÛ-w-GŸÛÅ-hP.ü G¸ÞGÅ-D¤Å-VGÅ-±ß¾ü ¼ÛGÅ-hP-Mãh-º²Ûm-HÛ-¼P-zŸÛm-¿km-»ôh-q-VôÅ-ZÛh-»Ûmü z®Å-¤-fG-qºÛ-yâ-GݺÛ-GÁÛÅ-Mãh-hï-uÛ-±ôGÅ-ˆÛ-ºIô-¾ÞGÅ-ÅôGÅ-hP-fôG-mÅ-¼P-GÁÛÅ-ÅÞ-¤ïh-ˆP.ü ¼Û¤-zŸÛm-hÝÅ-hP-ºHã¼-zºÛ-GmÅ-ÇePÅ-ÁÛG-GÛ-ºôG-mÅ-mÝÅ-ÇeôzÅ-hP-ljô¤-OÛG-‚ïh-mÝÅ-qºÛ-im-±ôh-TÛG-VGÅ-fÞzü hï-mÛ-uÛ-±ôGÅ-ÁÛG-GÛ-mP-BïÅ-qºÛ-Mã-¤±m-HÛÅ-»Ûmü

hï-¿e¼-yâ-GÝ-¾-hGôÅ-Gmh-hP-¤Dô-VÅ-¼ÛGÅ-¤fÞm-Aïm-¢¼-mÅ-Nå-¯¾-¿km-q¼-z¸ô-Mã-hï-mÛ-w-¤-hP-Zï-ºDô¼-HÛ-T-hPôÅ-¼ÛGÅ-ˆÛÅ-wm-ÁÝGÅ-¢Ûm-mÝÅü xôGÅ-¤±ßPÅ-qºÛ-GmÅ-±ß¾-hP-uôh-¾¤-HÛ-¤-¤fº-¾-Gô-dôGÅ-Çtï¾-hGôÅ-¾ü ¿ËG-q¼-hÝ-GÁÛÅ-Mãh-z¸P-zºÛ-uÛ-±ôGÅ-ˆÛ-Dô¼-»ÞG-m-Çkôh-¾ÞGÅ-¤Z¤-q¼-z¸ô-hGôÅ-q-mÛü ¯-zºÛ-yâ-GÝ-¾-h¤ÛGÅ-bï-‚ïh-hGôÅ-PïÅ-»Ûmü hï¼-zdïm-uÛ-±ôGÅ-ˆÛ-Pô-±z-¤±ôm-qºÛ-ÇÀôz-IÐ-ŸïÅ-¾ôGÅ-ÅÞ-zŸG-»ôh-q-hï-¼ïhü yâ-GݺÛ-¾ÞÅ-Åï¤Å-GZÛÅ-;¼-º±¼-¾ôPÅ-‚ãP-z-hP-¿Ëm-hÝ-uÛ-±ôGÅ-hP-¤fÞm-ºƒï¾ü hï-zŸÛm-zÇeàm-fzÅ-ÅôGÅ-ºhôh-„Àô-»ôPÅ-ÅÞ-ǨÛm-fÞzü

Education (ÁïÅ-»ômü ÇÀôz-GÅôü) ŸïÅ-qºÛ-±ÛG-ºhÛ-uÛ-±ôGÅ-ˆÛ-GmÅ-zz-hP-hGôÅ-¤Dô-zTÅ-¾-h¤ÛGÅ-mÅ-ºIï¾-zXôh-GmP-±ß¾-¤Û-ºi-z-¤P-hÝ-»ôhü ÁïÅ-»ôm-mÛ-ºhôh-„Àô-»ôh-±h-ˆÛ-GôP-ºwï¾-hÝ-ºIô-zºÛ-¾¤-xôGÅ-ˆÛ-Gô¤Å-ºiÛÅ-»G-ÁôÅ-ÁÛG-»Ûmü

¤Û-GTÛG-GÛ-PôÅ-mÅ-zÁh-mü ¤Û-¼ÛGÅ-»G-qô-ŸÛG-VGÅ-q¼-hïºÛ-ºWôm-fP-hP.ü zŤ-xôGÅ-hP.ü uôh-¾¤-¾-¼G-¾Å-»ôhü hï¼-zdïm-ÇÀôz-¢ôP-vôh-xôGÅ-wÞ¾-hÝ-‚ãP-zºÛ-fôG-mÅ-yâ-GݺÛ-uôh-¾¤-ºEï¼-ÅôºÛ-fh-¾-z;ôh-OÛG-‚-Mã-hï-»Ûmü

¤hô¼-mü ÇÀôz-GÅô-zMãh-hï-GP-¸G-GÛ-uôh-¾¤-Nå¼-zTôÅ-GbôP-Mã-hP.ü ¾ïGÅ-zTôÅ-fÞz-qºÛ-Aïm-HÛÅ-¼P-ZÛh-uÛ-±ôGÅ-mP-ljô¤-OÛG-hP-º±ô-GmÅ-»P-hG-‚-Mã-hï-»Ûmü

 

Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qºÛ-¾ô-MãÅ-¤hô¼-zÇkÝÅü

Brief History Psychology

º²¤-JÀÛP-mP-Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qºÛ-‚ãP-¼Û¤-mÛü ÇS-¼zÅ-ˆÛ-ÁïÅ-»ôm-ÆÛh-‚ãÅ-¾Å-fôm-q-ŸÛG-»Ûmü hï-»P-Bï-zô-IGÅ-Tm-hP.ü ±m-¼ÛG-q-±ôÅ-hPôÅ-ÁÝGÅ-zMãh-GÅÞ¤-HÛ-ºzh-z¯ôm-¾-zdïm-mÅ-hÝÅ-±ôh-ˆÛ-zMãh-¼Û¤-zŸÛm-hïºÛ-fôG-¾ïGÅ-BïÅ-ÅÞ-wÞ¾-zºÛ-Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-q-hP-ÁïÅ-»ôm-ÆÛh-‚ãÅ-GôP-ºwï¾-hÝ-zbP-z-»Ûmü

P-±ôÅ-fôÅ-ºhôh-hP-ÁïÅ-ºhôh-»ôh-qºÛ-Gmº-¼zÅ-ˆÛ-¤DÅ-q-¤±m-ljm-Vï-z-DG-TÛG-GÛÅ-Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qÅ-ÇÀôz-GÅô-¾-¤fÞm-Hã¼-‚ïh-xôGÅ-hP.ü ¿e-Iâz-hï-GôP-ºwï¾-GbôP-xôGÅ-hï-mÛ-fh-;¼-Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qºÛ-ÇÀôz-GÅôºÛ-ºzz-ÇeïGÅ-hP-ºƒï¾-z-VGÅ-»ôhü Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qºÛ-Mz-¿YôPÅ-ÅÞ-z¿eÅ-±ïü hï-mÛ-JËÛ-¼Û-ÅÛ-(Greece)Ç+zÅ-mÅ-‚ãP-zºÛ-mÝz-xôGÅ-ˆÛ-¿e-Iâz-¬-z-ŸÛG-»Ûmü hï-»P-¿e-Iâz-¬-z-hP-ÁôÅ-IÅ-BïÅ-Vïm-h¤-q- DemocriturŸïÅ-q-DôP-GÛÅ-ºIï¾-zXôh-GmP-Gž-¿e¼ü EÛ¤-±P-P¤-mP-EÛ¤-GŸÛ¼-¾Å-ŸÛz-¼Û¤-HÛÅ-ÁïÅ-»ôm-hï-¾Å-¾ô- 2000 GôP-GÛ-ÁïÅ-»ôm-HÛ-¾¤-Æô¾-hïÅ-DôP-¾-ÁÝGÅ-Aïm-Vï-z-fôz-»ôhü

GŸm-»P-xÛ-¾ô-ÇSôm-HÛ-hÝÅ-¼zÅ- 4 qºÛ-mP-JËÛ-¼ÛG-GÛ-¿e-Iâz-¬-z-qï-¾ï-‡ô-(Plato)hP-Íï-¼Û-ÅÛ-‡ô-‡¾-(Aristotle)GZÛÅ-ˆÛÅ-ÁïÅ-¼ÛG-n¤-zŸG-»¼-MÅ-hP.ü ¿ËG-q¼-hÝ-Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qºÛ-z¼-HÛ-ºƒï¾-¾¤-GŸÛ-¤fÞm-HÛ-fh-¾-¯-º²Ûm-Vïm-qô-GmP-»ôhü

hqï-¤±ôm-®¤-ŸÛG-zŸG-mü DôP-GZÛÅ-ˆÛÅ-¤ÛºÛ-Eh-VôÅ-Ço-±ôGÅ-¾-GŸÛGÅ-bï-¤Pôm-q¼-Gž-zºÛ-ÁïÅ-¼ÛG-fôG-¾-¿YGÅ-¯ô¤-hÝ-¤-GmP-»ôhü ¿ËG-q¼-¢PÅ-z¯ôm-HÛ-¼P-zŸÛm-fh-¾-zŤ-„Àô-ŸÛz-y-zbP-»ôhü

qï-¾ï-‡ô-(Plato)»Û-ÇÀôz-¤-Íï-¼Û-ÅÛ-‡ô-‡¾-(Aristotle)HÛÅ-¿YGÅ-¯ô¤-GmP-zºÛ-Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qºÛ-¯ô¤-ºIôÅ-¾-GŸÛGÅ-mü zXôh-‚-wÞm-ÅÞ¤-±ôGÅ-q-hP.ü M-Vï-ŸÛP-Gô-¼Û¤-¿km-qºÛ-¯ô¤-¼ÛG-GÛ-Nå-¯¾-hïºÛ-mP-hPôÅ-»ôh-¼ÛP-¾ÞGÅ-G®ô-º²Ûm-‚Å-bïü ÁïÅ-»ôm-HÛ-¿e-Iâz-fh-¾-mP-hôm-ŸÛz-y-ºIï¾-zXôh-GmP-»ôhü ¿ËG-q¼-hÝ-ÁïÅ-qºÛ-mÝÅ-¯¾-hP.ü hïÅ-ÁïÅ-dôGÅ-ˆÛ-Eh-VôÅ-Ť-mÝÅ-qºÛ-n¤-zŸG-TÛG-»ôh-q¼-ºIï¾-zXôh-hP.ü DôP-GÛÅ-»Ûh-VïÅ-hP-GhïP-ºWôG-ˆP-GmP-»ôhü hïÅ-m-DôP-GÛ-¿e-Iâz-hï-Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qºÛ-¼ÛP-¾ÞGÅ-ÁÛG-»Ûm-q¼-º²¤-JÀÛP-»ôPÅ-ˆÛÅ-PôÅ-º²Ûm-fôz-»ôhü xÛÅ-ÅÞ-¤DÅ-q-DG-TÛG-GÛÅ-Íï-¼Û-ÅÛ-‡ô-‡¾-(Aristotle)HÛ-¿e-Iâz-fh-¾-D-Çoôm-hP-zNå¼-zTôÅ-ym-zÞ-GmP-»ôh-ºhÝG

¤DÅ-q-Íï-;Û-¶Û-m-ÅÛ-(Aquinas)¤VôG-GÛÅ-Íï-¼Û-ÅÛ-‡ô-‡¾-(Aristotle)HÛ-¿e-Iâz-hP-¤fÞm-qºÛ-V-Aïm-ºGº-ŸÛG-zTôÅ-zNå¼-GmP-»ôh-±ôh-ºhÝG hï-mÛ-DôP-GÛ-hÝÅ-±ôh-hP-¤fÞm-qºÛ-ÇÀôz-FÛh-¾-¾ïGÅ-BïÅ-ÅÞ-wÞ¾-z-ŸÛG-¼ïhü

w-¼m-ÅÛºÛ-¤DÅ-q-^ï-ÅÛ-;¼-‡ï-(Descartes)¤VôG-GÛÅ-Íï-¼Û-ÅÛ-‡ô-‡¾-(Aristotle)HÛ-hôm-ljÛP-¿km-qºÛ-ÁïÅ-»ôm-HÛ-¼P-zŸÛm-fh-¾-zŤ-±ß¾-»ôh-q-hï¼-Mz-Bô¼-ÁÝGÅ-Vï¼-GmP-»ôhü hï-hP-xôGÅ-¤±ßPÅ-hPôÅ-qô-¬-z-¼ô-Åô-(Rousseau)¤VôG-GÛÅ-¤ÛºÛ-¾ÞÅ-Åï¤Å-ˆÛ-ºwï¾-¼Û¤-¾-GŸÛGÅ-bïü hGï-¤±m-Vï-zºÛ-ÁïÅ-»ôm-vôh-xôGÅ-Gbm-ºzïzÅ-GmP-»ôh-q-hï-mÛ-DôP-GÛ-Z¤Å-¥ôP-¾Å-ÁïÅ-q-ŸÛG-»Ûm-q-¼ïhü hôm-Gmh-hï-mÛ-DôP-GÛ-ljm-IGÅ-Vï-zºÛ-dôGÅ-zXôh-ˆÛ-hqï-hïz-Íï-¤Û-¾ï-(Emile)ŸïÅ-q-hïºÛ-mP-ÇÀôz-¤-ŸÛG-¾-ÇÀôz-FÛh-WÛ-¿e¼-‚ïh-hGôÅ-¤Ûm-fôG-¾-¸Ûm-fô-MÅ-q¼-z;ôh-»ôhü

Wôm-¾ô-;ï-(John Locke)¤VôG-mÛ-Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qºÛ-hzP-qôºÛ-¼ÛP-¾ÞGÅ-¾-zdG-hrh-¼Û¤-q¼-‚ïh-¤Dm-ŸÛG-hP.ü ¤DÅ-q-Vïm-qô-ŸÛG-ˆP-»Ûmü DôP-GÛÅ-¿e-Iâz-hïºÛ-fôG-¾-hzP-qôºÛ-¼ÛP-¾ÞGÅ-hï-®¤-h‚ï-º‚ïh-¤-fÞz-ˆP.ü DôP-GÛÅ-ºIï¾-zXôh-GmP-Gž-¾ü G®ßG-¾G-GÛ-Çkï-±m-ºhÛ-Åï¤Å-mP-GÛ-hôm-hPôÅ-ÁÛG-¤Ûm-»P.ü hïÅ-‚ïh-¾Å-Çtï¾-zºÛ-ÁÝGÅ-ˆÛÅ-zÇem-qºÛ-¤ÛP-hôm-¤±ßPÅ-qºÛ-;Ým-uôh-Ço-±ôGÅ-ÁÛG-»Ûmü DôP-GÛ-mm-Ç+ݾ-hP-ÍÞ-±ßGÅ-ÁÛG-¾ü P-±ôºÛ-Åï¤Å-ºhÛ-z®º-hÝÅ-mÅ-‚-uôh-Çtï¾-fÞz-¤Dm-HÛ-»m-mÅ-¤ïh-ˆP.ü uÛºÛ-Çoôh-ˆÛ-hPôÅ-qô-hG-GÛ-n¤-ºHã¼-hP-º±ô-zºÛ-Gô-dôGÅ-¾-wm-qºÛ-mÝÅ-q-¢Ûm-fÞzü hï¼-zdïm-hPôÅ-qô-¾-hPôÅ-ÅÞ-¥ôP-zºÛ-fôG-mÅ-¢PÅ-z¯ôm-‚ïh-q-hï-¥ôP-ºiÛÅ-¾G-¾ïm-¸ï¼-z-hï-¼ïhü ¥ôP-z-G®ô-zô¼-º²Ûm-qºÛ-fôG-mÅ-ÁïÅ-‚-¸ï¼-z-¼P-Mãh-hÝ-ÁïÅ-fÞz-TïÅ-q-mÛ-DôP-GÛ-¯-z-¿e-z-»Ûmü

John Lock ¤VôG-GÛ-zŤ-±ß¾-hP-±ôh-hqG-ÅôGÅ-GP-»Ûm-ˆP.ü DôP-GÛÅ-Åï¤Å-ˆÛ-¼P-zŸÛm-¾-hP-fôG-mÅ-dôG-q-ÅôGÅ-GP-»P-¤ïh-hïü GP-ÇoP-dôG-Á¼-z-hï-mÛ-xÛ-hPôÅ-qôºÛ-¼P-zŸÛm-hP-Eh-VôÅ-¾-GŸÛGÅ-bï-Åï¤Å-ˆÛ-¼P-zŸÛm-hï-Åï¾-z-mÛ-hPôÅ-qôºÛ-GmÅ-¾ÞGÅ-¼P-hzP-GÛÅ-dôGÅ-qºÛ-XïÅ-ÅÞ-Åï¤Å-¾-¤Pôm-ºHã¼-¿km-qºÛ-Eh-VôÅ-hG-¿Ëm-BïÅ-ÅÞ-»ôP-z-»Ûmü

xôGÅ-GŸm-ŸÛG-mÅ-z¿eÅ-±ïü Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qºÛ-»¼-MÅ-GôP-¤fô-xÛm-qºÛ-zMãh-¼Û¤-ŸÛG-mÛü hzP-qôºÛ-¼ÛP-¾ÞGÅ-¯-º²Ûm-‚Å-qºÛ-fôG-mÅ-ŸÛz-y-hïºÛ-¾ÞGÅ-¿e¼-zXôh-mü ÁïÅ-q-mÛ-Eh-VôÅ-GÅÞ¤-hP-¿km-qºÛ-wm-±ßm-¿eôÅ-Iâz-ˆÛ-mÝÅ-q-hP-Åï¤Å-ÇeôzÅ-ÁÛG-¾-z¯Û-ºWôG-‚Å-VôG hï-»P.ü 1ü Mã-¤±m-hP-Gô-dôGÅü 2ü º±ô-z¼-ºhôh-qü ºhÝ-ÁïÅü Ÿïm-VGÅü 3ü ºhÝm-Åï¤Å-zTÅ-»Ûmü

hï-mÅ-ÅÞh-ÅÛºÛ-ÁïÅ-¿km-q- Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi ¤VôG-HÛ-zŤ-±ß¾-¾ü DôP-GÛÅ-ÇS¼-zŸÛm-hzP-qôºÛ-¼ÛP-¾ÞGÅ-G®ô-º²Ûm-‚Å-qºÛ-n¤-zŸG-hï-¾-»Ûh-VïÅ-GmP-»ôh-¾ü P-±ôÅ-zXôh-hGôÅ-q-ŸÛG-¾ü DôP-mÛ-Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qºÛ-ÁïÅ-»ôm-q-ŸÛG-hP-Gż-zXï-z-ŸÛG-ˆP-»Ûmü DôP-GÛÅ-hGï-Lm-ºôÅ-¢ôP-GÛ-¾Å-¼Û¤-¾-ºHã¼-¿kôG-zbP-zÅ-¤-±h-ÇÀôz-GÅôºÛ-n¤-zŸG-hï-mÛ-¼P-ZÛh-Åô-ÅôºÛ-PôÅ-mÅ-ºiïm-mÝÅ-q-ŸÛG-hGôÅ-q¼-ºIï¾-zXôh-GmP-»ôhü DôP-GÛÅ-ÇÀôz-GZï¼-HÛ-fzÅ-±ß¾-hï-ZÛh-ºIô-z-¤Û-»Û-º±¼-¾ôPÅ-GÛ-VôÅ-ZÛh-¾-GŸÛ-zTô¾-mÅ-Gbm-ºzïzÅ-GmP-»ôhü DôP-GÛ-¾ïGÅ-BïÅ-Vï-ÁôÅ-mÛ-Ç+ݾ-ºhïh-hP-hGï-Lm-ºôÅ-¢ôP-GÛ-D-xôGÅ-G»Þ¼-hÝ-¸-zºÛ-¾Å-¼Û¤-hï-»Ûmü

hzP-qô-G®ô-º²Ûm-hÝ-‚ïh-qºÛ-Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-q-hï-XïÅ-ÅÞ-Í-¤Û-¼Û-;ºÛ-ÇÀôz-¢ôP-vôh-xôGÅ-fh-¾-ÁÝGÅ-Aïm-Vïm-qô-fïzÅ-»ôhü n¤-zŸG-hï-Gż-Gbôh-‚Å-qºÛ-XïÅ-ºƒÅ-ÅÞ-ÁïÅ-»ôm-HÛ-fzÅ-±ß¾-Gż-q-ŸÛG-‚ãP-z-¼ïhü »ôPÅ-IGÅ-ˆÛÅ-¾ÞGÅ-hP-¤fÞm-qºÛ-zÇÀz-FÛ¤Å-ˆÛ-ÇÀôz-GÅô-(Formal discipline of education)ŸïÅ-IGÅü ºhÛÅ-ÇKï¼-hôm-HÛ-hPôÅ-qô-hP-ÁïÅ-qºÛ-¼Ûm-fP-GÛ-n¤-zŸG-fh-¾-ºIï¾-zXôh-‚ïh-ˆÛ-»ôhü

Gż-Gbôh-q-DG-TÛG-GÛ-Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qºÛ-ÇÀôz-GÅô-GôP-hÝ-GbôP-fzÅ-ÅÞ- German professor Herbart hP- Froebel GZÛÅ-mÅ-‚-¯ô¾-±h-¾Å-zL¾-z-GmP-»ôh-q-mÛ-P-±ô¼-hGº-ºôÅ-qºÛ-GmÅ-ÅÞ-‚ãP-»ôhü Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qºÛ-ÇÀôz-GÅô-GôP-ºwï¾-GbôP-fzÅ-hï-»P-G®ô-zô-Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qºÛ-n¤-zŸG-GŸÛ-¯¼-z¸ÞP-mÅ-ÁïÅ-»ôm-ÇÀôz-GÅô-vôh-hGôÅ-±ß¾-hP.ü DôP-GZÛÅ-ˆÛÅ-GôP-Gž-hzP-qôºÛ-¼ÛP-¾ÞGÅ-G®ô-º²Ûm-‚ïh-¤Dm-HÛ-fzÅ-±ß¾-hï-n¤Å-PôÅ-¾ïm-¤Û-‚ïh-q-»Ûmü ¤DÅ-hzP- Herbart ¤VôG-GÛÅ-ŸÛz-±GÅ-qôºÛ-fôG-mÅ-Åï¤Å-ˆÛ-¼P-¼ÛG-hP-Dï-wm-GZÛÅ-G¾-Gmh-Vïm-qô-hP-¤Û-»Û-uôh-±ß¾-mÛ-¼P-zŸÛm-HÛ-ºHã¼-z-Tm-hP-Åô-ÅôºÛ-¾ÞÅ-D¤Å-ˆÛ-VGÅ-±ß¾-PïÅ-Tm-ŸÛG-»ôh-q¼-hzP-¤ïh-hÝ-zTô¾-»ôhü

GŸm-»P- Froebel ¤VôG-GÛÅ-ÇÀôz-GZï¼-fzÅ-¾¤-fh-¾-»¼-MÅ-Vïm-qô-zbP-»ôhü DôP-GÛÅ-Gż-º²âGÅ-GmP-zºÛ-ÇÀôz-GZï¼-fzÅ-¾¤-hï-mÛ-»ôPÅ-IGÅ-ÅÞ- Kindergarten ŸïÅ-q-hï-»Ûmü DôP-GÛÅ-ºIï¾-zXôh-GmP-Gž-¿e¼-mü ÇSôm-¼zÅ-±ôÅ-ÁïÅ-»ôm-fôG-¥ôP-ºiÛÅ-‚Å-q-hï-n¤Å-È-TP-GÛ-G¾-Vïm-qô-VGÅ-zÇkh-»ôh-TïÅ-GÅÞPÅü

Ç+zÅ-ºhÛºÛ-z¼-hÝ-P-±ôÅ-Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qºÛ-ÇÀôz-GÅô-hP-hïºÛ-¾ïGÅ-BïÅ-n¤Å-¤hô¼-zÇkÝÅ-ÁÛG-ÇS-¼zÅ-ˆÛ-¤DÅ-hzP-hP-¿e-Iâz-¬-z-±ôÅ-¤fÞm-ºHã¼-¤Û-ZÝP-z-ŸÛG-GmP-±ß¾-n¤Å-zXôh-¸Ûm-q-»Ûmü ºôm-ˆP-±m-¼ÛG-hP-¤fÞm-qºÛ-Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qºÛ-ÇÀôz-GÅô-hï-mÛ-hÝÅ-¼zÅ- 18 hÝÅ-hˆÛ¾-®¤-¾-ºGô-z®ßGÅ-q-ŸÛG-»Ûmü hïºÛ-XïÅ-ÅÞ-ºƒPÅ-qºÛ-Í-¤Û-¼Û-;ºÛ-¤DÅ-hzP- Stanley G. Hall(1844-1924)HÛÅ- ‘‘Different Aspects of Human Behavior’’ ŸïÅ-q-hq¼-Cæm-GmP.ü hï-zŸÛm- William James ˆÛÅ-xÛ-¾ô- 1890 ¾ô¼-Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qºÛ-n¤-zŸG-(‘‘Principle of Psychology’’) TïÅ-qºÛ-hqï-hïz-hq¼-zCæm-GmP-z¼-¤-¸hü L.M Terman, B.F.Skinner ÅôGÅ-ˆÛÅ-h¤ÛGÅ-ÅÞ-z;¼-mÅ-Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qºÛ-ÇÀôz-GÅôºÛ-fh-¾-xG-¾Å-hP-ÇÀôz-¢ôP-GmP-»ôh-q-¼ïhü

Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qºÛ-ÇÀôz-GÅôºÛ-¼P-zŸÛmü

Scope of Educational Psychology

 Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qºÛ-ÇÀôz-GÅôºÛ-¼P-zŸÛm-mÛü ¤Û-ÇKï¼-GTÛG-¾-¤±ôm-mü ¤Û-hï-BïÅ-q-mÅ-z¸ÞP-¤-ÁÛ-z¼-hÝ-ÁïÅ-»ôm-vôh-fzÅ-ˆÛ-zMãh-¼Û¤-ŸÛG-»Ûmü

ÁïÅ-»ôm-vôh-fzÅ-ˆÛ-zMãh-¼Û¤-hïºÛ-mP-hÝ-¯-zºÛ-ÇÀôz-¢ôP-¢ôP-¤Dm-±ôÅ-Pô-fG-Vôh-hGôÅ-qºÛ-©P-GŸÛº¤-Eh-VôÅ-GÅÞ¤-zÇkÝÅ-»ôh-q-»Ûmü

hï-»P.ü

  1. Learner ÇÀôz-GZï¼-zü
  2. Learning process ÇÀôz-GZï¼-zºÛ-fzÅ-¾¤-zMãh-¼Û¤ü
  3. Evaluation of learning performance ÇÀôz-GZï¼-zºÛ-¾G-¾ïm-¾-hrh-ŸÛzü

hP-qôü Learner ÇÀôz-GZï¼-zºÛ-mP-hÝ-±ßh-qºÛ-Eh-VôÅü

  1. Developmental characteristics: ¤Pôm-ÅÞ¤-¿km-qºÛ-fÞm-¤Ûm-HÛ-Eh-VôÅü
  2. Individual differences: Åô-ÅôºÛ-Eh-q¼ü
  3. Intelligence ¼ÛG-q-nôm-qôü
  4. Personality: fÞm-¤Ûm-HÛ-GÁÛÅ-uôhü
  5. and mental health zŤ-„ÀôºÛ-zhï-fP.ü

 

Learning process ÇÀôz-GZï¼-fzÅ-¾¤-zMãh-¼Û¤-mP-±ßh-qºÛ-Eh-VôÅü

Psychology of learning Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qºÛ-ÇÀôz-¢ôP.ü

Motivation of learning ;Ým-ÇÀôP-GÛ-ÇÀôz-¢ôP.ü

Factors affecting learning V-Aïm-hP-wm-mÝÅ-ˆÛ-ÇÀôz-¢ôP.ü

Diagnosis of learning problems ÇÀôz-GZï¼-h;º-P¾-HÛ-º±ô¾-ŸÛzü

Evaluation of learning process ÇÀôz-GZï¼-HÛ-¾G-¾ïm-¾-hrh-ŸÛz-hGôÅ-qü

ÇÀôz-GÅôºÛ-n¤-GŸG-¾-¾ïGÅ-BïÅü

Contribution To Theory Of Education

 

1ü ¤Pôm-ºHã¼-¿km-qºÛ-fÞm-¤Ûm-HÛ-uôh-¾¤-¾-Gô-dôGÅ-hGôÅ-q-mÛü ‚ÛÅ-q-mÛ-¤Û-»Û-¼Û¤-q-¤Û-ºi-z-DG-ºGº-ÁÅ-zMãh-mÅ-º±¼-¾ôPÅ-‚ãP-zºÛ-GŸÛ-ŸÛG-»Ûm-¾ü hï-hG-º±¼-¾ôPÅ-ˆÛ-zMãh-¼Û¤-mÛü ‚ÛÅ-qºÛ-GmÅ-Ç+zÅ-bï-¾ô-BïÅ-q-mÅ-¾ô-¿S-z¼ü yâ-GݺÛ-GmÅ-Ç+zÅ-bï-¾ô-¿Sº¤-iâG-mÅ-zTß-GZÛÅ-z¼ü hï-zŸÛm-GŸôm-mݺÛ-GmÅ-Ç+zÅ-bï-¾ô-zTß-GZÛÅ-mÅ-zTß-iâG-G¤-zTß-zhÝm-z¼-»Ûmü

GôP-Gž-º±¼-¾ôPÅ-ˆÛ-zMãh-¼Û¤-hï-zŸÛm-‚ÛÅ-q-Åô-ÅôºÛ-Eh-VôÅ-hP-uôh-¾¤-¤Û-ºi-z-»Ûmü G¾-bï-wÞGÅ-h¤ÛGÅ-¾-wm-qºÛ-hGï-Lm-ŸÛG-‚-hGôÅ-m-PïÅ-q¼-hÝ-‚ÛÅ-qºÛ-º±¼-¾ôPÅ-ˆÛ-zMãh-¼Û¤-hP-hïºÛ-Eh-VôÅ-n¤Å-ºzÞ¼-hÝ-fôm-q-Gô-dôGÅ-Ť-ÁïÅ-dôGÅ-hGôÅ-q-mÛ-zljôm-hÝ-¤ïh-q-»Ûmü hï¼-zdïm-DôP-GÛÅ-uôh-±ß¾-ÁïÅ-qºÛ-fôG-mÅ-ÇÀôz-ºFÛh-‚ïh-±ïü ÇÀôz-¤-hï-¾-ÁïÅ-»ôm-HÛ-hGôÅ-¤Dô-hP-¤fÞm-qºÛ-ÇKô-mÅ-uôh-±ß¾-¾-Mm-hÝ-¢Ûm-qºÛ-¤fÞm-IôÅ-¿kmü ÇÀôz-GÅôº¤-ÁïÅ-»ôm-vôh-qºÛ-h¤ÛGÅ-»Þ¾-hï-¤ÛP-hôm-¤±ßPÅ-q¼-‚ïh-fÞz-zôü ü

2ü ÇÀôz-DP-hÝ-ÇÀôz-ºFÛh-ˆÛ-¼P-zŸÛm-¾-Gô-dôGÅ-hGôÅ-q-mÛü Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qºÛ-ÇÀôz-GÅôº¤-ÁïÅ-‚-G®ô-zô-mÛü hGï-Lm-ŸÛG-¾-ÇÀôz-GZï¼-fzÅ-¾¤-HÛ-zMãh-¼Û¤-¾-ÇÀôz-¢ôP-vôh-Mã-hP.ü ¿ËG-q¼-hÝ-ÇÀôz-DP-hÝ-Mãm-¿km-HÛ-ÇÀôz-ºFÛh-h;º-P¾-¾-Ǩm-qºÛ-h¤ÛGÅ-zž-HÛ-ÇÀôz-GÅô-ŸÛG-»Ûmü ¤-¸h-È-TP-GÛ-wm-mÝÅ-Vï-z-GTÛG-mÛü º²Ûm-IкÛ-ÇÀôz-ºFÛh-n¤-zŸG-¾-¸z-q-hP-M-Vï-zºÛ-¢ôP-GŸÛ-¾-¤Pôm-ºHã¼-‚ïh-fÞzü

P-±ôÅ-Z¤Å-¥ôP-GÛÅ-ÁïÅ-dôGÅ-¿km-q-ŸÛG-¾-ÇÀôz-IкÛ-mP-hGï-Lm-DG-TÛG-º²Ûm-IкÛ-mP-ÇÀôz-ºFÛh-‚ïh-q-¾Å-GŸm-ŸÛG-m-Iâz-ºƒÅ-¿ËG-q-»ôP-zÇkh-»ôh-q-»P-»ôhü Ç+zÅ-ºG¼-º²Ûm-IкÛ-mP-wm-mÝÅ-¿km-qºÛ-Ç+h-V-Áôh-ÇePÅ-¾-¼G-¾ÞÅ-»ôh-q-hP.ü Ç+zÅ-ºG¼-ÇÀôz-yâG-DG-TÛG-GÛÅ-ÇÀôz-±m-HÛ-Gmh-hôm-fh-¾-¤-GÝÅ-q-hP-¤-z¯ÛÅ-q-hï-ºi-»P-»ôP-ÆÛhü hôm-hPôÅ-fôG-GP-»Ûm-¼ÞP.ü ŸÛz-±GÅ-qôºÛ-fôG-mÅ-º²Ûm-DP-hÝ-ÇÀôz-ºFÛh-‚ïh-qºÛ-Gmh-hôm-hï-Iâz-ºƒÅ-¿km-q-ŸÛG-z¸ô-Mã-mÛ-G¾-¤Dô-Vï-z-»Ûmü ¤-¸h-hGï-Lm-GTÛG-GÛ-PôÅ-mÅ-zÁh-mü ¼P-ZÛh-ˆÛ-ÇÀôz-±m-®¤-¤-»Ûm-q¼ü ÇÀôz-±m-GŸm-hP-ºƒï¾-zºÛ-Gmh-hôm-DG-TÛG-ÁïÅ-hGôÅ-q-mÛ-È-TP-GÛ-G¾-Vï-zºÛ-GmÅ-±ß¾-ŸÛG-»Ûmü hï-»P-¼ÛGÅ-qÅ-hrh-ºGôG-¿km-qºÛ-fôG-mÅ-uôh-¾¤-hïÅ-wm-±ßm-Eh-q¼-º‚ïh-mÝÅ-q¼-zdïmü DôP-GÛ-ÇÀôz-ºFÛh-GmP-»Þ¾-ÇÀôz-¤-hï-hG-hP-ºƒï¾-zºÛ-ÇÀôz-±m-n¤Å-Gô-dôGÅ-hGôÅ-q¼-¤-¸h-Gmh-¾-Dï¾-z-ÁïÅ-hGôÅ-Mã-hï-»Ûmü

xôGÅ-GŸm-ŸÛG-mÅ-zÁh-mü ÇÀôz-yâG-±ôºÛ-uôh-¾¤-hP-;Ým-uôh-ºwï¾-¼Û¤-hï-zŸÛm-ÇÀôz-¤ºÛ-BïÅ-¢PÅ-ˆÛ-mÝÅ-¤fÞ-hP.ü uôh-¾¤-DG-TÛG-¼ÛGÅ-Mãh-ˆÛ-¼P-GÁÛÅ-ÅÞ-»ôh-q-hïÅ-GP-¸G-hïºÛ-uôh-±ß¾-¾-Ám-¢¼-zÇkh-q-hP.ü ¿ËG-q¼-hÝ-Dô¼-»ÞG-GÛ-hzP-GÛÅ-uôh-±ß¾-¾-Ám-ŸÝGÅ-zÇkh-q-n¤Å-ÁïÅ-qºÛ-fôG-mÅ-º²Ûm-DP-hÝ-ÇÀôz-¤-¤Û-¼ï-Pô-¼ï-¾-ÇÀôz-Çeôm-m¤-GÅô-BôP-‚-hGôÅ-q-»Ûmü hï-¿e¼-uôh-±ß¾-hP-n¤-ºHã¼-¤Û-ºi-z-WÛ-ljïh-TÛG-»ôh-q-mÛ-¤Û-Åô-ÅôºÛ-D¤Å-hP-¤ôÅ-q-Ço-±ôGÅ-qºÛ-Mã-¤±m-HÛÅ-‚Å-q-»Ûmü hï-¾Å-ˆP-Gmh-ºGº-Vï-z-ŸÛG-¾ü hGï-Lm-HÛÅ-ÇÀôz-GZï¼-fzÅ-¾¤-Ço-±ôGÅ-ÁïÅ-hGôÅ-q-hP-fzÅ-ÁïÅ-hïÅ-ºVh-Zm-¾-wm-mÝÅ-WÛ-»ôh-ÁïÅ-dôGÅ-hGôÅ-q-»Ûmü h-hÝP-ÇÀôz-¢ôP-vôh-xôGÅ-ˆÛ-fzÅ-¾¤-Ço-±ôGÅ-ÁïÅ-fÞzü ¤-¸h-GÝÅ-q-hP-¿km-qºÛ-ÇÀôz-¤-hG-¾-ÇÀôz-GÅô-hP-ÇÀôz-Çeôm-‚ïh-fÞz-q-zTÅ-fÞm-¤ôP-¤-»Ûm-qºÛ-hGï-¤±m-¿km-»ôhü

3ü ÇKï¼-Åô-ÅôºÛ-Eh-VôÅ-¤Û-ºi-z-Gô-dôGÅ-hGôÅ-q-mÛü ºWÛG-dïm-hÝ-¤Û-GZÛÅ-GTÛG-¤±ßPÅ-»ôP-ÆÛh-hôm-¤ïh-¾ü hGï-Lm-ŸÛG-GÛ-PôÅ-mÅ-ZÛm-¼ï-ÇÀôz-yâG- 30–50 ®¤-¾-Pô-GhôP-zÇem-hGôÅ-±ï-h;º-zºÛ-GmÅ-ÁÛG-»Ûm-ˆP.ü ÇÀôz-yâG-mP-wm-±ßm-Eh-q¼-Vï-zºÛ-uôh-±ß¾-¤Û-ºi-z¼-¤P-hÝ-»ôhü hï¼-zdïm-hGï-Lm-GÛ-PôÅ-mÅ-ÇÀôz-¤ºÛ-Åï¤Å-hP-¤ôÅ-q-¾-G®ô-º²Ûm-‚ïh-qºÛ-fôG-mÅ-ÁïÅ-»ôm-HÛ-hGôÅ-¤Dô-hP-hôm-GZï¼-Tm-ŸÛG-zCæm-fÞz-Mã-hï-mÛ-¯-zºÛ-ÇKï¼-Åô-ÅôºÛ-Eh-VôÅ-¤Û-ºi-z-hï-Gô-dôGÅ-»ôh-qºÛ-Mã-¤±m-HÛÅ-‚ïh-fÞzü hï-¿e¼-hGï-Lm-hïÅ-ºGm-ºFÛ-»ôh-qºÛ-uôh-±ß¾-fh-¾-ÇÀôz-¢ôP-‚ïh-hGôÅ-q-»Ûmü ¤-¸h-ÇÀôz-yâG-n¤Å-¾-xÛ-mP-GZÛÅ-;ºÛ-uôh-±ß¾-»¼-MÅ-fh-¾-hÝÅ-hP-n¤-q-;Ým-bà-xG-¼ôGÅ-GmP-Mã-hï-G¾-Gmh-Vï-zºÛ-ºGm-ºFÛ-ŸÛG-»Ûm-q-zljôm-hÝ-¤ïhü

4ü mÝÅ-ÇeôzÅ-Vï-zºÛ-ÇÀôz-ºFÛh-ˆÛ-fzÅ-ÁïÅ-ÁïÅ-dôGÅ-hGôÅ-q-mÛü Mãm-¿km-mÅ-¼P-ZÛh-¾-¥ôP-±ô¼-»ôP-zÇkh-q-ŸÛG-¾ü Åô-ÅôºÛ-ÇÀôz-ºFÛh-fzÅ-¾¤-hï-¤-ºhP-z-hP-ZÝP-iGÅ-qºÛ-Aïm-HÛÅ-º²Ûm-DP-hÝ-ºƒï¾-¾¤-HÛ-V-mÅ-¤-¾ôm-qºÛ-GmÅ-±ß¾-»P-ºfôm-ÆÛh-q-ŸÛG-»Ûmü Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qºÛ-ÇÀôz-¢ôP-ºhÛÅ-ÇÀôz-ºFÛh-fzÅ-¾¤-¾-ºôÅ-ÁÛP-º±¤Å-qºÛ-Mãm-uôh-ˆÛÅ-ÇÀôz-fzÅ-ÁÛG-»Ûmü ¤-¸h-fzÅ-WâÅ-»¼-MÅ-hP-ÇÀôz-ºFÛh-¾-wm-mÝÅ-Vïm-qô-»ôhü

uÛ¼-zbP-‚Å-mü Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qºÛ-ÇÀôz-GÅôºÛ-Eh-VôÅ-mÛ-ÇÀôz-ºFÛh-ˆÛ-fzÅ-ÁïÅ-®¤-¤-»Ûm-q¼ü Æô¾-Mãm-HÛ-Z¤Å-¾ïm-DG-¾-h;º-P¾-¤P-qô-ŸÛG-zÁh-fÞzü ÇS-¼zÅ-ˆÛ-Æô¾-½‰ÛP-n¤Å-hô¼-mÅ-hïP-hÝÅ-hP-ºƒï¾-z-VGÅ-qºÛ-ÇÀôz-GÅô-vôh-xôGÅ-¾-hGï-¤±m-¿km-q-ŸÛG-»Ûmü º²Ûm-DP-hÝ-ÇÀôz-ºFÛh-‚-Mã-hï-mÛü fzÅ-¾¤-GTÛG-®¤-¾-zdïm-q-¤-»Ûm-q¼ü ºhÛ-zïh-uôh-‚Å-mÅ-fzÅ-WâÅ-Ço-±ôGÅ-¤Dô-Oæz-‚ïh-fÞzü Mã-¤±m-hï¼-zdïm-hGï-Lm-ŸÛG-GÛ-PôÅ-mÅ-fzÅ-¾¤-Ço-±ôGÅ-¾-MãÅ-¤Pº-»ôh-qºÛ-fôG-mÅ-º²Ûm-DP-hÝ-ÇÀôz-ºFÛh-GmP-hGôÅ-¾-fzÅ-ÁïÅ-¸ÞP-ºƒï¾-HÛÅ-ÇÀôz-ºFÛh-¾-¼P-ZÛh-mÅ-zP-¼Û¤-OÛG-qô-hGôÅ-PïÅ-»Ûmü

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5ü ÇÀôz-¤ºÛ-h;º-P¾-¾-ÁïÅ-dôGÅ-hGôÅ-q-mÛü Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qºÛ-ÇÀôz-GZï¼-ÇÀôz-¢ôP-‚Å-XïÅ-hGï-Lm-GÛ-PôÅ-mÅ-ÇÀôz-yâG-GÛ-h;º-P¾-hP-Mã-Aïm-n¤Å-ŸÛz-±GÅ-qôºÛ-fôG-mÅ-ÁïÅ-dôGÅ-hGôÅü GmÅ-±ß¾-hïºÛ-fôG-mÅ-hGï-Lm-¾-¢ôP-zl¼-vôh-q¼-¤-¸h-vôh-qºÛ-z¼-¾-Eh-q¼-Vïm-qô-»ôhü G¾-bï-hGï-Lm-hïºÛ-Mãh-¾-¤Û-»Û-uôh-±ß¾-HÛ-©P-GŸÛºÛ-fh-¾-¥ôP-ºiÛÅ-Tm-ŸÛG-»Ûm-±ïü DôP-GÛ-Åï¤Å-D¤Å-¼ÛG-qºÛ-ÇÀôz-¢ôP-zïh-uôh-‚Å-bï-ÇÀôz-¤ºÛ-h;º-P¾-»ôh-±h-Åï¾-fÞz-q-»Ûmü ü

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